Marilyn Waring CNZM was born in Ngāruawāhia, New Zealand. She holds a doctoral degree in political economy from the University of Waikato, and at age twenty-three she became a member of parliament, serving until 1984. Waring's internationally influential critique of gross domestic product, If Women Counted: A New Feminist Economics, appeared in 1988. Since 2006, she has been a professor of public policy at the Institute of Public Policy at AUT University. In 2008, Waring was made a Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit for her services to women and economics.